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Post-traumatic stress disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder refers to the individual’s experience, witness, or experience of one or more actual deaths involving himself or others, or threats of death, or serious injuries, or physical integrity threatened, resulting in individual delays The emergence and persistence of mental disorders. There are different reports on the incidence of PTSD, and women are more likely to develop PTSD than men.


The occurrence of PTSD is related to many factors. These factors are mainly divided into family and psychosocial factors (such as gender, age, race, marital status, economic status, social status, work status, education level, stressful life events, personality Characteristics, defense methods, childhood trauma, domestic violence, war, social support, etc.) and biological factors (such as genetic factors, neuroendocrine factors, neurobiochemical factors, etc.). Among them, major traumatic events are the basic conditions for the onset of PTSD, which are extremely unpredictable.

Clinical manifestations

The core symptoms of PTSD have three groups, namely, traumatic re-experience symptoms, avoidance and numbness symptoms, and increased alertness symptoms. However, the clinical manifestations of children and adults are not exactly the same, and some symptoms are unique to children.

1. Traumatic re-experiencing symptoms

It is mainly manifested in the patient's thinking, memory or dreams that repeatedly and involuntarily emerge from trauma-related situations or content. There may also be severe emotional reactions to the scene, and even the feeling that the traumatic event seems to happen again.

2. Avoidance and numbness symptoms

Mainly manifested as patients' long-term or persistent efforts to avoid events or situations related to the traumatic experience, refusal to participate in related activities, avoiding the location of the trauma or people or events related to the trauma, some patients even have selective forgetting and cannot recall Details of incidents related to trauma.

3. Symptoms of increased alertness

The main manifestations are hypervigilance and increased startle response, which may be accompanied by inattention, increased agitation and anxiety.

4. Other symptoms

Some patients may also show abuse of addictive substances, aggressive behavior, self-harm or suicidal behavior, etc. These behaviors are often the performance of the patient's psychological behavior coping style. At the same time, depressive symptoms are also common accompanying symptoms in many PTSD patients.

5. Symptoms and characteristics of PTSD in children

Children’s traumatic re-experience symptoms can be manifested as nightmares, repeated performance of traumatic events, playing trauma-related theme games, emotional agitation or sadness when faced with related prompts, etc.; avoidance symptoms in children often manifest as separation anxiety, Being clingy and unwilling to leave their parents; high alertness symptoms in children often manifest as excessive startle reactions, high vigilance, attention disorders, irritability or anger, difficulty falling asleep, etc. And children of different ages may have different performances of PTSD.


Liu Xianchen, Yang Jie. The development and reliability and validity of post-traumatic stress disorder self-rating scale. "Shandong Psychiatry", 1998

Zhang Ben, Wang Xueyi. Investigation of post-traumatic stress disorder in orphans caused by the Tangshan earthquake. "Chinese Journal of Psychiatry", 2000

Zhao Chengzhi, Wang Xiangdong, Gao Lan, etc. Follow-up study of post-traumatic stress disorder after Zhangbei Shangyi earthquake. "CNKI", 2000

Wang Xiangdong, Jiang Jingwei. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder. "Chinese Journal of Epidemiology", 2002

Zhang Ben, Wang Xueyi, Sun Hexiang, etc. A sample survey of post-traumatic stress disorder in Tangshan earthquake. "CNKI", 1999

创伤后应激障碍 創傷後應激障礙


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