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Respiratory disorders

Respiratory system disease is a common and frequently occurring disease. The main lesions are the trachea, bronchus, lungs and chest. In mild cases, cough, chest pain, and breathing are more affected. In severe cases, breathing difficulties, hypoxia, and even respiratory failure leading to death.

The death rate in the cities is the third, while in the rural areas it is the first. More attention should be paid to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (referred to as a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and pulmonary heart disease), bronchial asthma, lung cancer, and other factors at home and abroad due to air pollution, smoking, aging population and other factors. The morbidity and mortality of diseases such as diffuse interstitial fibrosis of the lungs and lung infections are increasing.

Disease classification


Asthma in English: bronchial asthma, referred to as asthma, commonly known as "roar disease", Chinese medicine called "asthma syndrome", is chronic airway inflammation involving a variety of cells, especially mast cells, eosinophils and T lymphocytes; In susceptible persons, this inflammation can cause recurrent symptoms of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing, which usually occur at night or in the early morning; such symptoms are often accompanied by extensive and variable expiratory flow limitation, but they can be partially Naturally alleviated or relieved by treatment; this symptom is also accompanied by increased airway responsiveness to a variety of stimulating factors. According to the authoritative organization Jinan Asthma Hospital, asthma can be classified into more than ten categories: chronic bronchitis asthma, allergic asthma, drug-induced asthma, senile asthma, cough variant asthma, chronic asthma, exercise asthma, and childhood asthma.


Chronic bronchitis (chronic bronchitis) is caused by infection or non-infectious factors in the tracheal and bronchial mucous membranes and increased mucus secretion. It is clinically characterized by long-term cough, sputum or wheezing. The symptoms of the disease are mild in the early stage, mostly in winter, and relieved after the warmth of spring, and the course of the disease is slow, so it is not paid attention to. When the advanced disease progresses and complicates with obstructive emphysema, lung function suffers damage, affecting health and labor. This disease is one of the common and frequently occurring diseases in China. Decades of clinical data show that the age of onset is more than 40 years old. Smokers are significantly higher than non-smokers. The prevalence in China is higher in the north than in the south, and the incidence in rural areas is slightly higher than that in urban areas.


Bronchitis refers to non-specific inflammation of the trachea, bronchial mucosa and surrounding tissues. Most of them are caused by bacterial or viral infections. According to epidemiological investigations, they are mainly rhinovirus, syncytial virus, influenza virus and rubella virus. The more common bacteria are pneumococcus, hemolytic streptococcus, staphylococcus, influenza bacillus, salmonella and diphtheria bacillus. In addition, sudden changes in temperature, dust, smoke and irritating gases can also cause bronchitis. Clinically, it is characterized by coughing, sputum expectoration, or accompanied by wheezing and recurrent episodes. It is divided into chronic bronchitis and acute bronchitis. Acute bronchitis has a runny nose, fever, cough, and sputum as the main symptoms, as well as hoarseness of the throat, sore throat, and slight post-sternal friction pain. The phlegm is small and viscous in the early stage, and then it becomes purulent. Stimuli such as smoke and cold air can make the cough worse. Chronic bronchitis is mainly manifested as a long-term cough, especially in the morning and evening. If the infection is secondary, fever, fear of cold, and coughing up purulent sputum. Clinical data shows that winter is the season of the high incidence of this disease.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), an irreversible chronic lung disease, includes two types: chronic bronchitis (chronic bronchitis) and emphysema (emphysema). It is a preventable and treatable disease. It has some obvious extrapulmonary effects, which can aggravate the severity of the disease in some patients, and is characterized by incompletely reversible airflow limitation. The airflow limitation is progressively worsening and is mostly related to the abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to harmful particles and gases. Airflow limitation, the characteristic lesion of COPD, is the result of the combined effects of small airway disease (obstructive small chronic obstructive pulmonary disease bronchitis) and lung parenchymal destruction (emphysema), which account for the two causes in different patients The ratio is different. The natural course of COPD is variable, and each patient's course is different. A progressively worsening disease, especially when the patient is continuously exposed to a harmful environment. The impact of COPD on patients depends not only on the degree of airflow limitation, but also on the severity of symptoms (especially shortness of breath and decreased mobility), systemic effects, and the presence or absence of comorbidities.

Cor Pulmonale

The most common type of chronic pulmonary heart disease is chronic hypoxic blood pulmonary heart disease, also known as obstructive pulmonary heart disease, or pulmonary heart disease for short. It refers to the pulmonary circulation's resistance caused by chronic lesions of the thorax or pulmonary artery in the lungs. Increased height leads to pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy, a type of heart disease with or without right heart failure. Cor Pulmonale is a common and frequently occurring disease in China.

More than 20 million people were surveyed nationwide from 2000 to 2002, and the average prevalence of cor pulmonale was 0.4%. In 1992, more than 100,000 farmers were surveyed in certain areas of Beijing, Hubei, and Liaoning. The average prevalence of cor pulmonale was 0.47%, which was basically similar to the previous one. The prevalence of people living on plateaus (such as Northeast, North China, and Northwest), insufficiency of sunshine and too humid southwest and the smoking population is high, and it increases with age, and more than 91.2% of patients are over 41 years old. There is no significant difference in gender between men and women. The prevalence rates of different occupations are workers, farmers, and general urban residents in order. The highest prevalence rate can reach 15.7%49.8%. This disease accounts for 46%38.5% of hospitalized heart disease. Most regions accounted for the 3rd and 4th place, and the composition ratio from 1980 to 1989 was only 2.49%, accounting for 8th place. This is related to the increase in the incidence of coronary heart disease and myocarditis and the increase in the number of cases. In the severely cold northern and humid southwest regions, it is the first.


Pulmonary tuberculosis: pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus, which can affect multiple organs throughout the body, but tuberculosis is the most common. The pathological features of this disease are tuberculosis nodules and caseous necrosis, which are easy to form cavities. Clinically, it is mostly a chronic process, and a small number of them may have the onset of disease. There are often systemic symptoms such as low-grade fever and fatigue, and respiratory manifestations such as cough and hemoptysis.

呼吸系统疾病 呼吸系統疾病


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