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Bloating is a common digestive system symptom, not a disease. It can be a subjective feeling that a part of the abdomen or the entire abdomen is full, usually accompanied by related symptoms, such as vomiting, diarrhea, belching, etc.; it can also be an objective examination finding, such as finding that a part of the abdomen or the entire abdomen is bulging. The causes of abdominal distension are mainly seen in gastrointestinal flatulence, ascites caused by various reasons, and abdominal tumors.

Clinical manifestations

The severity of the bloating varies from very mild to severe and uncomfortable. The change in circadian rhythm is a common feature of abdominal distension. In most patients, abdominal distension develops progressively during daily activities and tends to decrease or disappear after resting at night. The diseases accompanied by bloating include constipation, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, indigestion, eating disorders and obesity, flatulence, organic diseases (including certain malignant tumors), and so on.


1. Primary disease treatment

is mainly for the treatment of primary diseases.

2. General treatment

Reduce the intake of gas-swallowed foods and limit the intake of gas-producing foods, such as onions and celery. Keep bowel movements smooth.

3. Drug treatment

(1) Simethicone promotes the rupture of the thick foam layer and the flow of liquid, reducing abdominal distension.

(2) Prokinetic agents can be used to treat patients with the hypokinetic function of the gastrointestinal tract.

(3) Enzyme preparations can promote the decomposition of food residues that are not completely digested by endogenous enzymes.

(4) Probiotics and prebiotics can improve the intestinal micro-ecological environment, reduce gas production, and relieve symptoms of abdominal distension.

4. Other

For severe abdominal distension, use anal canal exhaust, gastrointestinal decompression, appropriate oxygen inhalation, etc., or apply heat to the abdomen and apply turpentine to the umbilicus.

Zou Duowu, Xu Guoming, Su Tun, Lu Jianping. Observation on the efficacy of compound azide in the treatment of functional dyspepsia, chronic cholecystitis, gallstones, liver cirrhosis, and abdominal distension. "Chinese Journal of Digestion", 2005

Liu Wenling, Liu Zhuoxing. Analysis of the causes of abdominal distension after cesarean section and nursing countermeasures. "CNKI", 2009

Zhang Huahong, Li Xiaoxia, Li Dongying. Raw rhubarb combined with Glauber's salt external application to treat severe acute pancreatitis and abdominal distension observation and nursing. "Journal of Nurses Training", 2012

Feng Xiazhi. A hot and humid compress of peppermint oil prevents abdominal distension in patients after gynecological surgery. "CNKI", 1997

Jiang Yufang. Nursing intervention for patients with postoperative abdominal distension. "WanFang", 2004

腹脹 腹胀


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