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Childbirth specifically refers to the period and process during which the fetus leaves the mother and becomes an independent individual. The whole process of childbirth is divided into 3 stages, also called 3 stages of labor. The first stage of labor is the period of dilation of the uterine orifice. The second stage of labor, the fetus delivery period. The third stage of labor, when the placenta is delivered.

Childbirth is usually divided into three consecutive processes.

1. The first stage of labor

Also known as the uterine dilation period. It is from the beginning of regular contractions with an interval of 5 to 6 minutes, to the complete dilation of the cervix up to 10 cm. This process requires 11-12 hours for primipara and 6-8 hours for postpartum women.

2. Second stage of labor

Also known as the delivery period of the fetus. It is from the complete dilation of the cervix to the delivery of the fetus. It takes 1-2 hours for primiparous women, usually within a few minutes for menstrual women, but it may take up to 1 hour.

3. Third stage of labor

Also known as the placenta delivery period. It takes 5-15 minutes from the delivery of the fetus to the delivery of the placenta, and should not exceed 30 minutes.

After the fetus is delivered, there will still be contractions to promote the delivery of the placenta, but the contractions at this time are relatively painless. Afterward, the doctor will tidy up the pregnant woman, and if there is a crack in the vulva, he will perform partial sutures.


1. Natural vaginal delivery

Natural vaginal delivery refers to a delivery method in which the fetus develops normally, the pelvis of the pregnant woman is normal, the pregnant woman is in good physical condition, and safety is guaranteed, usually without artificial intervention, so that the fetus is delivered through the vagina.

2. Cesarean section delivery

It is often called a cesarean section, which is to open the abdominal wall and uterus to remove the fetus. Pregnant women with a narrow pelvis, abnormal placenta, abnormal birth canal, or premature breaking of water, an abnormal fetus, need to end the delivery method that is often used during delivery as soon as possible. If the case is selected properly and the operation is performed in a timely manner, the lives of the mother and child can be saved.


Li Yuehong, Wu Na, Zhuang Wei. The effect of the delivery ball combined with free-position assisted delivery on primipara's labor pain, childbirth control feeling, and pregnancy outcome. "CNKI; WanFang", 2013

Hua Jiazeng. Doula accompanies the delivery. "Chinese Journal of Practical Gynecology and Obstetrics", 1999

Yao Tianyi. The importance of labor analgesia for improving perinatal quality. "Chinese Journal of Practical Gynecology and Obstetrics", 2000

Geng Zhenghui, Ma Nan. The choice of re-pregnancy and delivery methods after cesarean section. 2000

Gu Chunyi, Zhang Zheng, Zhu Xinli, Wang Yan. The influence of interventional support in the third trimester of pregnancy on the cognitive behavior of pregnant women during childbirth and the outcome of childbirth. "CNKI; WanFang", 2011



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