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Cystitis is an inflammation that occurs in the bladder, which is mainly caused by specific and non-specific bacterial infections, as well as other special types of cystitis.

Its clinical manifestations are acute and chronic. The former has a sudden onset, burning sensation when urinating, and pain in the urethral area. Sometimes there is urgency and severe frequent urination. Common in women. Terminal hematuria is common, and gross hematuria and blood clots are excreted in severe cases. The symptoms of chronic cystitis are similar to those of acute cystitis, but there is no high fever. The symptoms can last for several weeks or intermittently, which makes the patient fatigue, weight loss, discomfort, or dull pain in the waist, abdomen and bladder perineum area.

Common non-specific cystitis is caused by Escherichia coli, Para Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Most are caused by retrograde infection through the urethra. Because the female urethra is short and close to the vagina, cystitis is more likely to occur. There are lesions in the bladder itself, such as bladder stones, foreign bodies and indwelling catheters, or urinary tract obstruction and urinary dysfunction are more likely to occur non-specific cystitis.

General treatment

Including proper rest, drinking plenty of water to increase urine output, paying attention to nutrition, avoiding irritating food, and patients with obvious bladder irritation should be given antispasmodic drugs to relieve symptoms.


In some special cases, patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria do not require conventional antimicrobial treatment and need to be closely monitored.

Antimicrobial therapy

Antimicrobial therapy is the main treatment method for urinary tract infections. It is recommended to choose drugs based on drug sensitivity test.


Chen Zhiqiang, Ma Shengli, Wu Tianpeng, etc. Special discussion on cystitis glandularis. "Journal of Clinical Urology", 2003

Sun Yinghao, Yan Kejun, Wang Linhui. Cystitis glandularis (report of 25 cases). 2000 Zhou Xing, Liu Chunxiao. The expression of rasP21 and the biological outcome of cystitis glandularis. "Vip", 1997

Zhuang Qianyuan, Mei Wei, Guan Wei, Zhou Wei, etc. Analysis of the treatment of cystitis glandularis (report of 89 cases). "Chinese Journal of Urology", 2004

Xu Danfeng, Min Zhilian. Cystitis glandularis: A report of 8 cases. "Vip", 1995



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