<<< Back

Female fertility & IVF briefing paper

Test-tube baby is the common name of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer technology, which refers to the baby born by artificially fertilizing egg cells and sperm in vitro, and carrying out early embryo development, and then transplanting to the mother's uterus to develop.

In vitro fertilization combined embryo transfer technology (IVF): also known as test-tube baby, it means that after the egg and sperm are taken out, they are placed in a test tube to make them fertilized, and then the embryonic precursor --- the fertilized egg is transferred back to the mother's uterus to develop into a fetus. Test-tube babies are babies born by artificially fertilizing eggs and sperm in vitro and carrying out early embryo development, and then transplanting them into the mother's womb.

For people

1. Severe fallopian tube diseases, such as pelvic inflammatory disease-causing blockage of the fallopian tubes and accumulation of water; or tuberculosis of the fallopian tubes and normal endometrium; or blockage of the fallopian tubes after ectopic pregnancy.

2. Endometriosis.

3. Immune infertility, those with anti-sperm antibodies in the semen of the man or the cervical mucus of the woman.

4. Malefactors, namely oligospermia, asthenospermia, and teratozoospermia.

5. Unexplained infertility.

6. Those who have failed infertility treatment for other reasons.

7. Those who have hereditary diseases that need to be diagnosed before transplantation.

8. Others: such as unruptured follicle syndrome, etc.


1. Ovulation stimulation treatment

Since not every egg can be fertilized, and not every fertilized egg can develop into a viable embryo, it is necessary to obtain multiple eggs from a woman to ensure that there are embryos that can be transferred, which requires ovulation induction therapy for women.

2. Egg retrieval

Under the guidance of B-ultrasound, the doctor applies a special egg retrieval needle to puncture mature follicles through the vagina and suck out the eggs. Egg retrieval is usually performed under intravenous anesthesia, so women will not feel the pain caused by the puncture process.

3. In vitro fertilization

Sperm retrieval: When the female retrieves the eggs, the male retrieves the sperm. After the semen undergoes a special washing process, the sperm and eggs are placed in a special culture medium in order to combine naturally. This is the so-called conventional fertilization method.

4. Embryo transfer

A few days after fertilization, a very thin embryo transfer tube is used to transfer the best embryos into the mother’s uterus through the cervix. The number of embryos to be transferred is determined according to age, embryo quality and previous IVF outcome, usually 2 to 3 embryos will be transferred Embryo. In recent years, in order to reduce the rate of multiple pregnancies, some centers have opted for single embryo transfer or up to 2 embryos. Because the embryo transfer tube is very thin and the doctor moves gently, the patient usually does not have any pain.

5. Corpus luteum support

Due to the application of GnRH agonists/antagonists and ovulation-stimulating drugs, as well as the loss of follicular granulosa cells caused by egg retrieval, women usually have insufficient corpus luteum function during the egg retrieval cycle and need to use progesterone and/or chorionic gonadotropin for corpus luteum Supplement/support. If there is no pregnancy, stop progesterone and wait for menstruation. If you are pregnant, continue to use progesterone, usually 3 weeks after the fetal heart rate is seen by B-ultrasound.

6. Determination of pregnancy

Serum HCG was measured 14 days after embryo transfer to determine if pregnancy. Serum HCG was measured again 21 days after embryo transfer to understand embryo development. Transvaginal ultrasound examination 30 days after embryo transfer to determine whether there is an intrauterine pregnancy and whether there is a fetal heartbeat.


Kuang Huarong, Lin Carli, Zhong Ruichong. Test Tube Baby Technology. "Journal of Gannan Medical College", 2003

Peng Jing, Lu Daru. Development and discussion of IVF technology. "CNKI", 2010

Lian Fang, Zhang Jianwei, Zhang Ning, Wang Zhe, etc. The application of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in IVF technology. "CNKI", 2002

Wang Leiguang, Xu Yumei. The harm and preventive measures of multiple pregnancies caused by the application of IVF technology. "CNKI", 2002

Qiu Xuefang, Chen Shenglian, Chen Ruxian, etc. Patient's psychological condition and nursing effect evaluation in IVF technology. "CNKI; WanFang", 2013

女性生育和试管婴儿 女性生育和試管嬰兒


<<< Back