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HIV infection

AIDS is a very harmful infectious disease caused by HIV infection. HIV is a virus that can attack the human immune system. It takes the most important CD4 T lymphocytes in the human immune system as the main target, destroys the cells in large quantities, and makes the human body lose its immune function. Therefore, the human body is susceptible to various diseases, and malignant tumors can occur, with a high mortality rate. The average incubation period of HIV in the human body is 8-9 years. During the incubation period of HIV, one can live and work without any symptoms for many years.

It takes several years, even as long as 10 years, or longer incubation period for HIV-infected people to develop into AIDS patients. Due to the extreme decline of the body’s resistance, multiple infections, such as herpes zoster, oral mold infection, tuberculosis, etc. Enteritis, pneumonia, encephalitis caused by pathogenic microorganisms, serious infections caused by various pathogens such as Candida, Pneumocystis, etc., malignant tumors often occur in the later stage, and long-term consumption, and even systemic failure and death.

Clinical manifestations

The incidence is more common in young adults, and 80% of the onset ages are between 18 and 45 years old, that is, the age group where sexual life is more active. After being infected with AIDS, they often suffer from some rare diseases such as pneumocystis pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, atypical mycobacteria and fungal infections.

After HIV infection, there may be no clinical manifestations for the first few years to more than 10 years. Once developed into AIDS, the patient will have various clinical manifestations. Generally, the initial symptoms are like the common cold and flu and may include general fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, fever, etc. As the disease worsens, symptoms increase days by day, such as skin and mucous membrane infections with Candida albicans, herpes simplex, and bands. Herpes, purpura, blood blisters, congestion spots, etc.; later gradually invading internal organs, there will be persistent fever of unknown reason, which can last as long as 3 to 4 months; cough, shortness of breath, dyspnea, persistent diarrhea, blood in the stool may also occur, Liver and spleen enlargement, complicated with malignant tumors, etc. The clinical symptoms are complex and changeable, but not all of the above symptoms appear in every patient. Infringement of the lungs often results in dyspnea, chest pain, coughing, etc.; infringement of the gastrointestinal tract can cause persistent diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, etc.; it can also invade the nervous system and cardiovascular system.

General symptoms

Persistent fever, weakness, night sweats, and persistent generalized systemic lymphadenopathy. Especially the swelling of lymph nodes in the neck, axilla and groin is more obvious. Lymph nodes are more than 1 cm in diameter, firm in texture, movable, and painless. The weight loss can reach more than 10% within 3 months and can be reduced by up to 40%, and the patient's weight loss is particularly obvious.

Respiratory tract symptoms

Long-term cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and blood in sputum in severe cases.Digestive symptoms

Loss of appetite, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stools in severe cases. Drugs commonly used to treat gastrointestinal infections are not effective against this diarrhea.

Nervous system symptoms

Dizziness, headache, slow response, mental retardation, mental disorders, convulsions, hemiplegia, dementia, etc.

Skin and mucous membrane damage

Herpes simplex, herpes zoster, oral and pharynx mucosa inflammation and ulceration.


A variety of malignant tumors can occur. Kaposi's sarcoma located on the body surface can show red or purple macules, papules and infiltrating masses.


Overall strategy

At present, there is still a lack of effective drugs to cure HIV infection worldwide. The goals of treatment at this stage are: to minimize and lastingly reduce the viral load; to rebuild and maintain immune function; to improve the quality of life; and to reduce HIV-related morbidity and mortality. The treatment of this disease emphasizes comprehensive treatment, including general treatment, antiviral treatment, treatment to restore or improve immune function, and treatment of opportunistic infections and malignant tumors.

General treatment

There is no need for isolation treatment for HIV-infected patients or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Asymptomatic HIV-infected people can still maintain normal work and life. Antiviral treatment should be carried out according to the specific condition, and the changes in the condition should be closely monitored. For patients in the early stage of AIDS or who have developed AIDS, they should pay attention to rest according to their condition, and give them a high-calorie, multi-vitamin diet. Those who cannot eat should be given intravenous infusion to supplement their nutrition. Strengthen supportive therapy, including blood transfusion and nutritional support therapy, to maintain water and electrolyte balance.

Antiviral therapy

Antiretroviral therapy is the key to AIDS treatment. With the application of highly effective antiretroviral combination therapy, the efficacy of anti-HIV has been greatly improved, and the quality of life and prognosis of patients has been significantly improved.


Shao Yiming, Kang Laiyi, Wang Ning, etc. Diagnostic criteria for AIDS and HIV infection. "VIP", 2012

Zeng Yi. The discovery and origin of AIDS and HIV (2). "VIP", Year Xu Lianzhi Wu Pantong. A Brief Talk on AIDS. "Pharmaceutical Science and Technology Press", 2007

Zhang Xingquan, Fan Jiang. HIV infection and AIDS. "People's Medical Publishing House", 1999

Mei Zhiqiang, Zhu Yu. Epidemiology and prevention of AIDS and HIV infection. "Vip", 1996

艾滋病毒感染 艾滋病毒感染


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