<<< Back

Kidney stones

Kidney stones are caused by abnormal accumulation of crystalline substances (such as calcium, oxalic acid, uric acid, cystine, etc.) in the kidneys. It is a common and frequently occurring disease of the urinary system. It is more common in men than in women and mostly occurs in young adults, on the left and right sides. There is no significant difference in the incidence of serotonin, 90% contain calcium, of which calcium oxalate stones are the most common.

Colic caused by smaller stones often has severe pain like a cut in the waist and abdomen, which is paroxysmal. Stones can occur in any part of the urinary system, but they often start in the kidneys. Kidney stones are mostly located in the renal pelvis or calyces when they are formed and can be discharged into the ureter and bladder. Almost all ureteral stones come from the kidney.


The formation process of kidney stones is that certain factors cause the concentration of crystal substances in the urine to increase or the solubility to decrease, and they are in a supersaturated state. The crystals precipitate and grow and accumulate locally, eventually forming stones. There are many factors that affect the formation of stones. Age, gender, race, genetics, environmental factors, eating habits and occupations are related to the formation of stones. Abnormal metabolism of the body (such as hyperparathyroidism, hypercortisolism, hyperglycemia), long-term bed rest, nutritional deficiencies (vitamin B6 deficiency, magnesium deficiency diet), urinary tract obstruction, infection, foreign bodies and drug use are stones Common causes of formation. It is known that urinary stones have 32 components, the most common component is calcium oxalate, and other components of stones such as magnesium ammonium phosphate, uric acid, calcium phosphate, and cystine (an amino acid). Kidney stones rarely have a single crystal composition, most of which have two or more than two, and one type is the main body.

Clinical manifestations

The symptoms of kidney stones depend on the size, shape, location of the stone and the presence or absence of complications such as infection and obstruction. Most patients with kidney stones have no symptoms unless the kidney stones fall from the kidney to the ureter and cause urine blockage in the ureter. Common symptoms include waist and abdomen cramps, nausea, vomiting, irritability, abdominal distension, hematuria and so on. If combined with urinary tract infection, symptoms such as chills and fever may also occur. Acute renal colic often makes the patient unbearable pain.


Li Xun, Wu Kaijun. Multi-channel percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of complex kidney stones. "Chinese Journal of Urology", 1998

Qiu Ling. Nursing care of multi-channel percutaneous nephrolithotomy for the treatment of complex kidney stones. "CNKI; WanFang", 2003

Ye Lihong, Chen Yongliang, Jiang Xiaoqiang, etc. Holmium laser lithotripsy under flexible ureteroscope for the treatment of kidney stones (with a report of 106 cases). "CNKI; WanFang", 2010

Gao Xiaofeng, Sun Yinghao, Wang Linhui, etc. Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy for the treatment of complex kidney stones. "National and Global Chinese Urology Conference", 2005

Li Jianxing, Tian Xiquan, Niu Yinong, etc. B-ultrasound guided percutaneous nephroscope pneumatic ballistic combined with ultrasonic lithotripsy for the treatment of hydronephrotic kidney stones. "Chinese Journal of Surgery", 2006

肾结石 腎結石


<<< Back