The incidence of male infertility is about 10%. Among them, the pure female factor is about 50%, the pure male factor is about 30%, and the male and female factors total about 20%. Clinically, male infertility is divided into two types: sexual dysfunction and normal sexual function. The latter can be further divided into azoospermia, oligospermia, asthenospermia, sperm asthenia and normal sperm count based on the results of semen analysis.
The etiology of male infertility can be divided into absolute infertility (azoospermia) and relative infertility (low sperm count or low sperm motility) according to fertility and can be divided into primary and secondary infertility according to clinical manifestations, According to the lesions of the sex organs, it can be divided into testicular, testicular and posterior. The causes of male infertility are more complicated, and the main reasons are as follows:
1. Abnormal semen
(1) When the sperm density in the semen is less than 0.2×109/ml with no sperm or too few sperm, the woman's chance of conception decreases, resulting in infertility. This type of infertility can be divided into permanent and temporary. The former is seen in congenital testicular developmental disorders or severe lesions of the testicles and seminal vesicles; the latter is more common in people with frequent sexual life leading to the failure of spermatogenesis, generally due to sperm reduction rather than completeness. No sperm.
(2) Poor sperm quality. Non-viable or too many dead sperm in semen (more than 20%), or poor sperm motility or more than 30% of abnormal sperm can often cause infertility.
(3) The physical and chemical properties of semen are abnormal. Normal semen quickly condenses into a jelly shape after it is ejected, and it is completely liquefied in the next 15 to 30 minutes. If the semen does not coagulate after ejaculation, or liquefaction is not complete, it often indicates that the seminal vesicles or prostate have the disease. Bacteria and virus infection of the reproductive tract can also cause changes in semen composition and cause infertility.
2. Spermatogenesis disorders
(1) Testicular diseases Testicular tumors, testicular tuberculosis, testicular syphilis, non-specific inflammation of the testicles, testicular atrophy after trauma or torsion of the spermatic cord, lack of testes, etc., can all cause spermatogenic dysfunction and infertility.
(2) Chromosomal abnormalities Sex chromosomal abnormalities can cause poor differentiation of sex organs such as testis, causing true hermaphroditism and congenital testicular hypoplasia. Autosomal abnormalities can lead to disorders of gonadal and spermatogenic cell metabolism.
(3) Spermiogenesis dysfunction. Long-term consumption of cottonseed oil can affect spermatogenesis and sperm autoimmunity, and can also cause spermatogenesis dysfunction.
(4) Local diseases such as recessive varicocele and huge hydrocele affect the local external environment of the testis or cause infertility due to temperature, compression and other reasons.
3. Sperm and egg binding disorder
(1) Obstruction of the seminal tract, congenital defects such as atresia of the vas deferens, surgical ligation of the vas deferens, chronic inflammation of the seminal tract and its surrounding tissues, etc.
(2) Retrograde ejaculation, bladder neck has undergone surgery or been injured or scar contracture after surgery causes the urethral deformity, bilateral lumbar sympathetic resection or rectal cancer after abdominal perineal surgery, pudendal nerve damage caused by diabetes, spermatic cord Cyst hypertrophy, and severe urethral stricture, certain drugs can cause changes in the function of sympathetic nerves that innervate the bladder.
(3) Abnormalities of the external genitalia such as congenital penile deficiency, small penis, male pseudohermaphroditism, epispadias or hypospadias, acquired penile inflammation or injury, scrotal edema, huge hydrocele, etc., such as impotence One of the reasons for male infertility is that sperm cannot be injected into the vagina and meet the eggs normally.
(4) Male sexual dysfunction, impotence, premature ejaculation, non-ejaculation, etc.
4. Systemic factors
(1) Mental and environmental factors. Sudden changes in the living environment lead to long-term mental stress, high altitude, high-temperature, super-intensity work, and radiation work.
(2) Malnutrition due to severe nutritional factors, vitamin A, vitamin E deficiency, deficiency of trace elements such as zinc and manganese, calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorders, chronic poisoning of toxic substances such as mercury, arsenic, lead, ethanol, nicotine, cottonseed oil, etc., Chemotherapeutic drug treatment, etc.
(3) Endocrine diseases, pituitary dwarfism, obesity, reproductive impotence syndrome, hypophysis, congenital hypogonadism, congenital spermatogenesis syndrome, hyperprolactinism, pituitary tumor or intracranial infection, Birth injuries, etc.
Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment
For 1 degree varicocele, semen infections (including prostatitis, seminal vesiculitis, epididymal vasculitis), and immune male infertility, use Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese medicine to treat syndromes, or promote blood circulation and remove blood stasis, or clear liver and nourish the kidney, or nourish the kidney. Essence, or soothing the liver and regulating flushing.
Li Hongjun. Male infertility. "CNKI", 2003
Huang Yufeng. New progress in laboratory diagnosis of male infertility. "Chinese Journal of Andrology", 2002
Li Haisong, Xu Tinghua, Wang Bin, Han Liang. A review of clinical research on the treatment of male infertility with the method of invigorating the kidney. "CNKI; WanFang", 2013
Li Haisong, Li Yueqing. Experimental study on the treatment of male infertility with Bushen Shengjing Pills. "CNKI", 2003
Wang Yixin. Diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. "Shanghai Science and Technology Literature Press", 2004