Multiple sclerosis is the most common type of central nerve demyelination disease. There are multiple inflammatory demyelinating plaques in the white matter of the central nervous system during the acute active phase of the disease. The old lesions form calcified plaques due to the proliferation of glial fibers. They are characterized by multiple foci, remission, and recurrence. The disease usually occurs in the optic nerve, spinal cord and brain Dry, frequently occurring in young and middle-aged, women are more common than men.
The cause of the disease is unknown, and it is related to genetic factors, and environmental factors such as viral infections and geographic autoimmune reactions have a certain relationship.
The clinical classification of MS is currently recognized:
1. Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS)
The most common course type of MS, 80% of MS patients are this type at the initial stage of onset, showing obvious recurrence and remission process, and basically recovering from each attack, leaving no or only minor sequelae. As the course of the disease progresses, most of them will eventually change to SPMS within 5 to 15 years.
2. Secondary progressive MS (SPMS)
A type of disease course after RRMS is a process in which after the relapse and remission stage, the disease cannot be completely relieved with the recurrence and some sequelae remain, and the disease gradually worsens. Approximately 50% of RRMS patients will change to this type within 10 years/80% within 20 years.
3. Primary Progressive MS (PPMS)
MS is a rare type of disease. 10% to 15% of MS patients present this type at the beginning. There is no clinical remission and recurrence process. The disease is slowly progressive and the disease course is more than one year.
4. Progressive relapsing MS (PRMS)
MS is a rare type of disease. About 5% to 10% of MS patients present this type. The disease is always aggravated slowly, and there are a small number of remissions during the course of the disease.
Multiple sclerosis lesions are more diffuse, so the symptoms and signs are more complicated, and neuritis, retrobulbar optic neuritis, ophthalmoplegia, limb paralysis, pyramidal tract signs, and mental symptoms may occur. Ataxia, limb tremor and nystagmus occur when the lesion is located in the cerebellum. The lesions invaded the medial longitudinal fascicles, resulting in persistent, irregular and involuntary ocular myoclonus. If dizziness and vertical nystagmus occur that are not easy to explain, especially in young patients, acute dizziness and vertical nystagmus continue after vertigo stops. This disease should be considered.
In the early stage of the disease, fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo may occur. The symptoms are complex due to multiple lesions and vary with the location of the lesion. If there are demyelinating areas in the brainstem and cerebellum, or hardened plaques, which damage the vestibular nucleus or the structure associated with the vestibule, the clinical manifestations are persistent dizziness, and the dizziness worsens when the head is turned and accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Tinnitus and deafness are rare. Some patients have nystagmus with variable forms. Vertical nystagmus and horizontal nystagmus are also common. The nystagmus quickly points in the gaze direction.
Gott., SF, Chen Yang. Multiple sclerosis. "Vip", 1989
Wang Dianhua, Chen Jinliang. Shenlu Yisui Decoction in the treatment of 41 cases of multiple sclerosis. "Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine", 2011
Wang Baoliang, Qian Baicheng. 163 cases of multiple sclerosis treated with integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine. "Research in Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2009
Volume 22, Issue 3, Page 44-45", 2009 Li Bin, Chen Wufan. Automatic segmentation algorithm for MR images of multiple sclerosis based on fuzzy connectivity. "CNKI; WanFang", 2007
Chen Jinliang, Wang Dianhua, Li Yongli. Clinical observation of 120 cases of multiple sclerosis treated with Guilu Yisui Capsule. "Chinese Journal of Basic Medicine in Traditional Chinese Medicine", 2008