Nausea and vomiting
Nausea and vomiting are common clinical symptoms. Nausea is a feeling of discomfort and urgency in the upper abdomen.
There are many causes of nausea and vomiting, which can be summarized into the following categories according to the pathogenesis:
1. Reflex vomiting
(1) The pharynx is irritated such as smoking, severe cough, inflammation of the nasopharynx or pus.
(2) Stomach and duodenal diseases, acute and chronic gastroenteritis, peptic ulcer, functional dyspepsia, acute gastric dilatation or pyloric obstruction, duodenal stagnation, etc.
(3) Intestinal diseases, acute appendicitis, intestinal obstruction, etc.
(4) Hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases, acute hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, liver congestion, etc.
(5) Peritoneal and mesenteric diseases such as acute peritonitis.
(6) Others such as kidney and ureter stones.
2. Central vomiting
(1) Nervous system diseases ①Intracranial infections, such as various encephalitis; ②Cerebrovascular diseases, such as cerebral hemorrhage; ③Craniocerebral injuries, such as brain contusions; ④Epilepsy, especially in persistent states.
(2) Systemic diseases: uremia, hepatic coma, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperthyroidism crisis, parathyroid crisis, etc.
(3) Drugs such as certain antibiotics, anticancer drugs, digitalis, etc. can excite the vomiting center and cause vomiting.
(4) Poisoning alcohol, heavy metals, carbon monoxide and other poisonings can cause vomiting.
(5) Mental factors: gastric neurosis, hysteria, and anorexia nervosa.
3. Vestibular disorders
For those with vomiting accompanied by hearing impairment, dizziness and other otological symptoms, vestibular dysfunctional vomiting should be considered. Common diseases include labyrinthitis, Meniere's disease and motion sickness.
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