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Nausea and vomiting

Nausea and vomiting are common clinical symptoms. Nausea is a feeling of discomfort and urgency in the upper abdomen.


There are many causes of nausea and vomiting, which can be summarized into the following categories according to the pathogenesis:

1. Reflex vomiting

(1) The pharynx is irritated such as smoking, severe cough, inflammation of the nasopharynx or pus.

(2) Stomach and duodenal diseases, acute and chronic gastroenteritis, peptic ulcer, functional dyspepsia, acute gastric dilatation or pyloric obstruction, duodenal stagnation, etc.

(3) Intestinal diseases, acute appendicitis, intestinal obstruction, etc.

(4) Hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases, acute hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, liver congestion, etc.

(5) Peritoneal and mesenteric diseases such as acute peritonitis.

(6) Others such as kidney and ureter stones.

2. Central vomiting

(1) Nervous system diseases Intracranial infections, such as various encephalitis; Cerebrovascular diseases, such as cerebral hemorrhage; Craniocerebral injuries, such as brain contusions; Epilepsy, especially in persistent states.

(2) Systemic diseases: uremia, hepatic coma, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperthyroidism crisis, parathyroid crisis, etc.

(3) Drugs such as certain antibiotics, anticancer drugs, digitalis, etc. can excite the vomiting center and cause vomiting.

(4) Poisoning alcohol, heavy metals, carbon monoxide and other poisonings can cause vomiting.

(5) Mental factors: gastric neurosis, hysteria, and anorexia nervosa.

3. Vestibular disorders

For those with vomiting accompanied by hearing impairment, dizziness and other otological symptoms, vestibular dysfunctional vomiting should be considered. Common diseases include labyrinthitis, Meniere's disease and motion sickness.


Kong Lingxiang. Nausea and vomiting. 2006

You Xinmin. Nausea and vomiting after surgery. "VIP", 1994

Ma Congfeng, Han Zhongxiu. Nursing intervention for nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients. "Nursing Research", 2003

Lu Qian, Zhang Shuqi. The relationship between anticipatory nausea and vomiting and self-efficacy and coping styles in breast cancer chemotherapy patients. "Journal of Nurses Training 2008

Volume 23, Issue 20, Pages 1828-1829 ISTIC", 2008

Li Aijie, Tao Haitao, Wang Jinliang, etc. Analysis of the efficacy of aprepitant in preventing nausea and vomiting caused by cisplatin chemotherapy. "Chinese Drug Application and Monitoring", 2015

恶心和呕吐 噁心和嘔吐


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